Conflict, Violence and Peacemaking

The ambivalent role of the Global South in Processes of Statebuilding

Coordination: Marta Fernández

This project focus on three objectives: (i) to deepen, through a critic perspective, the study of “new” peace operations of the United Nations (UN) developed in post-colonial societies, (ii) to study how these operations act on the reconstruction of States in a specific pattern of governance that reproduces the so called “liberal peace model”, and (iii) comprehend the historical background of UN peace operations by looking specially at speeches produced during the imperialist movement of the 20th century and, also, at the beginning of the United Nations Trusteeship Council created to conduct the colonies towards independence on the post II World War scenario. 

 

Brazil and Peacebuilding Practices

Coordiation: Paulo Luiz Moureaux Lavigne Esteves 

Over the last 20 years the contributions of the so called emerging powers to the peacekeeping operations have experienced a significant growth. In fact, the contribution of emerging countries such as Brazil is becoming more and more relevant to peacekeeping practices. However, it is important to question the nature of Brazil’s engagement as well as its consequences, whether in Brazilian foreign policy, or in the international practices of peacebuilding and peacekeeping. What are the practices and results of Brazil’s engagements in Peacekeeping Operations? This general questioning guides the formulation of the current proposal. This project intends to advance this research agenda, bringing to the core of its inquiries the following questions: (i) What are the main transformations in multilateral practices of peace stability and consolidation since the end of the Cold War? (ii) How did Brazil respond to the transformation of norms and practices after conflict peace consolidation process? (iii) What are the Brazilian patterns of involvement in peace operations and what is the country’s role in MINUSTAH in terms of stabilization practices and the consolidation of peace? What are the broader implications of Brazil’s participation in MINUSTAH to its foreign politics in matters of security, humanitarian aid and development? Besides these four questions the project intends, finally, to verify in which extent the pacification practices employed by the Brazilian State were transferred from the external environment to the domestic one. It is an exploratory question that explores the seemingly simultaneity of Brazilian pacification practices in Haiti and in Rio de Janeiro

 

Global South Unit for Mediation (GSUM)

Coordination: Mônica Herz

The Global South Unit for Mediation (GSUM) is an already existing center and has ongoing activities since November 2013 with the general objective to explore the growing involvement of Global South actors in the theoretical and practical field of international mediation through the development of practical and analytical skills on this region. Amongst its activities of development and capacitation on mediation are (i) workshops for professionals and scholars; (ii) open events to the whole community; (iii) Winter School of mediation that will count with students and professors from different countries; (iv) the Fellows program, that has already selected three experts from Global South countries for the year of 2014 to act in the Unit’s activities for two months; (v) and finally, the Reader on international mediation in Portuguese, that aims at developing analytical and practical skills related to international mediation among students and professionals from different fields of the International Relations. In this sense, this book offers a selection of basic texts about the theme that will be translated into two fundamental objectives: first, to spread the knowledge on international mediation in Portuguese to students, scholars and professionals of the South. Second, it intends to stimulate the debate and the thinking of the technics from the Global South, creating a culture of mediation that are not only consumed, but produced and thought through local perspectives. 

 

Centre for Resolution of International Conflicts (CRIC)

Coordination: Anna Grudun Christina Leander

Centre for Resolution of International Conflicts (CRIC) is a research center organized as a cooperation between researchers from different disciplines at the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School, Aarhus University, Aalborg University and the University of Southern Denmark.

 

Emerging Powers and the Reforms on the Security Council

Coordination: Kai Michael Kenkel 

With the end of the Cold War, the bipolar international system crumbled, leading to the emergence of a multipolar world and the rise of new powers on the world stage. Many of those emerging States -such as Brazil- based their rise on their economic power. However, the institutionalization of their new status was made jointly. Let's take the example of the Security Council, which the main criteria is based on the military power and its use through interventions in favor of human rights. This criteria is often formulated in terms of the exercise of international responsibility. This project aspires to study and problematize that combination, in order to seek paths for rising powers -Brazil, India and to control the effect of the North-South dynamics, Germany- to meet requirements (and “responsibility”) even though they are not able (due to lacking means) or strongly do not want to (due to diplomatic and normative tradition) use their military forces. Peace-building is the main way to connect the strengths of those powers concerning development and the pressure to act in the security field, and it is one of the components of the UN peacekeeping operations that combine both of those practices. The topic will be explored from an institutionalist liberal approach, in order to fill the gaps concerning the analytical definition of the emerging powers category, but also to identify the diplomatic challenges experienced by each country in its search for international profile. The project depends on a fieldwork-based methodology used in the three mentioned States and composed of interviews with high-level decision makers and implementers. A book and three articles are planned to be written and published in international reviews. Besides, some papers are planned to be presented during international congresses, and presentations about Brazil's international profile and the function of peacekeeper operations will be made in public schools of Rio de Janeiro.